The territory of Kazakhstan began acquiring rights of millions of years ago. Ancient people already in the era of the Lower Paleolithic obzhil comfortable for life, rich with game and wild fruits Tracts Karatau, where the most ancient sites discovered stone age. Gradually, in the era of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic period, he mastered the Central and Eastern Kazakhstan, Mangyshlak.
In IV-III millennium BC. e. in Kazakhstan the culture of horse breeders, known for the excavations Botay settlements in the north. Found that Kazakhstan was part of the zone of domestication horses, revolutionary in its importance of the process, which played a prominent role in the development of the whole of Eurasia. Archaeologists discovered protogorodskoy cultural monuments in the steppe zone, they have about 4 thousand years. In the Bronze Age in the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes of the so-called Andronovo culture, they knew irrigation, bred thoroughbred cattle. People of this era were not only warriors, shepherds and farmers, but also excellent metallurgists. By the late Bronze Age is open archaeologists Begazy-dandybaevskaya culture of Central Kazakhstan, with its monumental architecture, and numerous settlements focused on smelting copper. Central Kazakhstan has become one of the largest centers of production of copper and bronze on the continent. Lived ancient andronovtsy large settlements in the dugouts or houses, there were ancient protogoroda, surrounded by walls and moats, built-up according to the plan. Born protopismennost, the high level reached and applied art, which is largely determined by religious beliefs associated with the mythology, when the world seemed a kind of cycles of natural cycles.
In their place came saki. So people called it the ancient Persians, the Chinese called it the “SE” and the Greeks “Scythians.” They were nomads, semi-nomads and farmers. But above all, they were excellent horsemen. The first in the world saki learned to shoot a bow at full gallop.
In the VI-III vv. BC. e. Sakas established their first state, whose center was in Zhetysu (Seven Rivers), in south-eastern Kazakhstan. Saki had their own written language, mythology and art of outstanding world-class, has received in the scientific literature as “the art of animal style.” Scenes – predators and herbivores, the struggle between them. Masterpieces made of gold and bronze and decorated with museum exhibitions in the world. . Kings Sakas simultaneously performed the role of high priests. This is evidenced by dumping Saka king in the Issyk burial mound. “The Golden Man” was a warrior he is talking about weapons that are with him, and a golden arrow, and a priest – on his head he wore a kind of peaked cap, and lay next to the mirror – and a shepherd, as evidenced by the grave of a whip. Saki were brave soldiers – have written about this, Herodotus and other philosophers and historians of ancient Greece and Rome. Saks known wars with the Persians, the victory of Saks headed Tomiris over the Achaemenid king Cyrus. Saki and successfully fought with the soldiers of Alexander of Macedon.
In the middle of 1 millennium BC begin to form and proto-Turkic ethnic groups, composed of ethnic Kazakhs protoosnova. Its formation involved pra, Iranian, Ugric and other nations.
Many scholars have argued that in the I millennium BC. e. Kazakhstan’s population was predominantly native of Indo-European, Indo-Iranian languages. But now, increasingly adopted the view that among the tribes of the Bronze Age, and especially Saks, there were tribes speaking proto-language.
The history of Kazakhstan is closely connected with the first Eurasian empire – Göktürks, who had continued in the countries of the Western Turks: Turgeshes, Karluk, Kimak, Oguz, Kipchak, Karahanid. It is from these times in Northern Eurasia, hardly changing the boundaries of habitats, living ancestors of the Kazakhs. Mid-century, I ne. – The most important milestone in the history not only Kazakhs but of all Turks. At this time starts changing ethnic environment – the predominance of passes to the Turkic tribes, which became the center of Altai. In the second half of VI. in written sources is fixed, the term “Turk” in the Chinese transfer – tutszyue in Sogdian – Turku).
Archeological study of Turkic monuments makes it possible, to some extent, to compare them with certain Turkic tribal associations. At the Sayan-Altai identified archaeological culture, comparable with earlier Kirghiz, early Kipchaks early Oguz. During the feuds, tribal warrior, fighting for power and pastures lived in the prairies, plains of Kazakhstan part of the Turkic tribes migrated to the south-east of Central Asia (Turgeshes, Karluk, kypchaki, Uzbeks, Oguz, Turkmen-Seljuks), Asia Minor and the Caucasus ( Turkmens and Seljuks), in Eastern Europe (Kangar-Pechenegs kypchaki-Polovtsy, Torquay Oguz, black hoods, Karakalpaks).
On the territory of Kazakhstan from VI to XIII in the beginning. existed successively replacing each other until the Mongol invasion, the Western Turkic, Turgesh, Karluk kaganate, the state Oguz, Karakhanid, Kimek, Kipchak. After the Mongol invasion in the early XIII century. formed uluses Mongol Empire Juchi and Jagat, then gave life Ak-Orda, Mogolistanu, and later – Kazakh Khanate.
All these states have a mixed economy. Tribes pastoralist tribes lived side by side with farmers, the steppe and the city complement each other. Taraz, Otrar Ispidzhab, Talhir stood on the ancient Silk Road that linked the ancient and medieval West and East: Japan, Korea and China with Central Asia, Iran, Seljuk State, Russia and Byzantium, France and Italy.
In this way brought a variety of products: silk, linen, silver and precious stones, medicines and dyes. The Great Silk Road spread the art of dance and painting, architecture and music. As it moved religions: Manichaeism and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam, which, beginning with the IX-X centuries. Becomes dominant, and then the main religion of the Kazakhs. On the bank of the Syr Darya in Turkestan city being built in the late XIV – early XV century religious relic of all the Turkic peoples – the Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. All ideas and achievements of different civilizations, absorbed and processed the people who lived in the territory of Kazakhstan, which became the basis of the Kazakhs, introducing, in turn, the world’s treasury of its achievements in economy and culture – a mobile home tent, saddle and stirrups for horses, soldiers mounted combat , carpet patterns, and silver jewelry, music, reminiscent of the steppe horse race. All this determined the integrity and continuity of ancient and medieval history of Kazakhstan.
Because of the many ethno-political and economic factors on the territory of Kazakhstan there were three main ethno-territorial association – Senior, Middle and Younger Zhuzes emerged. Existence zhuzes reflected the complexity of the process of formation of the Kazakh nation, has left its mark on local cultural and service features of its development. The formation of the Kazakh ethnic group in XIV-XV centuries. largely completed.